武汉现新型冠状病毒,那么冠状病毒是什么?它分几类?人感染冠状病毒后有何表现?一起来听中国疾控中心的回答。

Wuhan is a new type of coronavirus, so what is the coronavirus? How many classes does it fall into? What are the manifestations of human infection with coronavirus? Let's hear from the CDC.

冠状病毒属于套式病毒目、冠状病毒科、冠状病毒属,是一类具有囊膜?基因组为线性单股正链的RNA病毒,是自然界广泛存在的一大类病毒。病毒基因组5′端具有甲基化的帽状结构,3′端具有poly(A)尾,基因组全长约27-32kb,是目前已知RNA病毒中基因组最大的病毒。

The coronavirus belongs to the cluster virus order, the coronavirus family, the coronavirus family, is one kind has the capsule? Genomic RNA virus with linear single strand positive chain is a large class of viruses in nature. the viral genome 5' end has a methylated cap-like structure, and the 3' end has a poly (a) tail. the genome is about 27–32 kb in length. it is the largest known rna virus in the genome.

根据系统发育树,冠状病毒可分为四个属:α、β、γ、δ,其中β属冠状病毒又可分为四个独立的亚群A、B、C和D群。

According to the phylogenetic tree, the coronavirus can be divided into four genera:α,\946;,\947;,δ, among which \946; belongs to the coronavirus can be divided into four independent subgroups A, B, C and D groups.

迄今为止,除本次在武汉引起病毒性肺炎暴发疫情的新的冠状病毒外,共发现6种可感染人类的冠状病毒(HCoV-229E、HCoV-OC43、SARS-CoV、HCoV-NL63、HCoV-HKU1和MERS-CoV)。

So far, in addition to the new coronavirus that caused the outbreak of viral pneumonia in Wuhan, a total of six human coronaviruses (HCV-229E, HCV-OC43, SARS-CoV, HCV-NL63, HCV-HKU1 and MERS-CoV) have been found.

HCoV-229E和HCoV-NL63属于α属冠状病毒,HCoV-OC43、SARS-CoV、HCoV-HKU1和MERS-CoV均为β属冠状病毒,其中,HCoV-OC43和HCoV-HKU1属于A亚群,SARS-CoV属于B亚群,MERS-CoV属于C亚群(见下图)。

HCV-229E and HCV-NL63 belong to α coronavirus, HCV-OC43, SARS-CoV, HCV-HKU1 and MERS-CoV all belong to beta coronavirus. Among them, HCV-OC43 and HCV-HKU1 belong to A subgroup, SARS-CoV belongs to B subgroup, and MERS-CoV belongs to C subgroup (see below).

人冠状病毒对热较为敏感,病毒在4℃合适维持液中为中等稳定,-60℃可保存数年,但随着温度的升高,病毒的抵抗力下降,如HCoV-229E于56℃10分钟或者37℃数小时即可使丧失感染性,SARS-CoV于37℃可存活4天,56℃加热90分钟、75℃加热30分钟能够灭活病毒。

The human coronavirus is more sensitive to heat, the virus is moderately stable in the appropriate solution at 4°C, and can be preserved at -60°C for several years, but with the increase of temperature, the resistance of the virus decreases, such as HCoV-229E at 56°C for 10 minutes or 37°C for several hours, SARS-CoV can survive at 37°C for 4 days, heat at 56°C for 90 minutes and heat at 75°C for 30 minutes.

人冠状病毒对有机溶剂和消毒剂敏感,75%酒精、乙醚、氯仿、甲醛、含氯消毒剂、过氧乙酸和紫外线均可灭活病毒。

human coronaviruses are sensitive to organic solvents and disinfectants.75% alcohol, ether, chloroform, formaldehyde, chlorine-containing disinfectants, peracetic acid, and ultraviolet rays can inactivate the virus.

人冠状病毒中SARS-CoV于室温24℃条件下在尿液里至少可存活10天,在腹泻病人的痰液和粪便里能存活5天以上,在血液中可存活约15天,在塑料、玻璃、马赛克、金属、布料、复印纸等多种物体表面均可存活2-3天。

The human coronavirus SARS-CoV can survive in urine for at least 10 days at room temperature of 24°C, in sputum and feces of diarrhea patients for more than 5 days, in blood for about 15 days, and in plastic, glass, mosaic, metal, cloth, photocopying paper and other objects for 2-3 days.

在全球,10%~30%的上呼吸道感染由HCoV-229E、HCoV-OC43、HCoV-NL63和HCoV-HKU1四类冠状病毒引起,在造成普通感冒的病因中占第二位,仅次于鼻病毒。感染呈现季节性流行,每年春季和冬季为疾病高发期。潜伏期2-5天,人群普遍易感。主要通过人与人接触传播。

Globally,10% to 30% of upper respiratory tract infections are caused by HCV-229E, HCV-OC43, HCV-NL63, and HCV-HKU1, the second most common cause of the common cold, second only to rhinovirus. Infection is seasonally prevalent, with high incidence in spring and winter every year. incubation period of 2-5 days, the population is generally susceptible. spread mainly through human contact.

SARS由人感染SARS-CoV引起,首先出现在我国广东省部分地区,之后波及我国24个省、自治区、直辖市和全球其他28个国家和地区。2002年11月至2003年7月全球首次SARS流行中,全球共报告临床诊断病例8096例,死亡774例,病死率%。SARS的潜伏期通常限于2周之内,一般约2~10天。人群普遍易感。SARS病人为最主要的传染源,症状明显的病人传染性较强,潜伏期或治愈的病人不具备传染性。自2004年以来,全球未报告过SARS人间病例。

SARS, caused by human infection with SARS-CoV, first appeared in parts of Guangdong province of China, and then spread to 24 provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government and 28 other countries and regions around the world. From November 2002 to July 2003, a total of 8096 cases of clinical diagnosis,774 deaths and% mortality were reported. The incubation period for SARS is usually limited to 2 weeks, usually about 2 to 10 days. The population is generally susceptible. SARS patients are the main source of infection, the patients with obvious symptoms are more infectious, incubation period or cure patients are not infectious. No human cases of SARS have been reported globally since 2004.

MERS是一种由MERS-CoV引起的病毒性呼吸道疾病,于2012年在沙特阿拉伯首次得到确认。自2012年起,MERS在全球共波及中东、亚洲、欧洲等27个国家和地区,截止目前共报告2468例病例,死亡851例,病死率约%。80%的病例来自沙特阿拉伯。我国曾发生过一例输入性MERS病例。该病潜伏期为2-14天,人群普遍易感。单峰骆驼是MERS-CoV的主要储存宿主,且为人间病例的主要传染来源,人与人之间传播能力有限,目前仅发现在医疗机构中,如果密切接触病人时未采取有效防护,可能会出现人际传播现象。

MERS, a viral respiratory disease caused by MERS-CoV, was first identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012. Since 2012, MERS has affected 27 countries and regions, including the Middle East, Asia and Europe, and so far has reported 2,468 cases,851 deaths and about% mortality. 80 per cent of cases are from Saudi Arabia. One case of imported MERS occurred in our country. The incubation period of the disease was 2-14 days, and the population was generally susceptible. Single-peak camel is the main storage host of MERS-CoV, and is the main source of infection in human cases, with limited human-to-human transmission capacity, and it is found that only in medical institutions, if there is no effective protection in close contact with patients, there may be interpersonal transmission phenomenon.

常见的可感染人类的冠状病毒(包括229E、NL63、OC43和HKU1型)通常会引起轻度或中度的上呼吸道疾病,如感冒。症状较轻,主要包括流鼻涕、头痛、咳嗽、咽喉痛、发热等。有时会引起下呼吸道疾病,例如肺炎或支气管炎,心肺疾病患者、免疫力低下人群、婴儿和老年人中较常见。

Common human-infected coronaviruses (including type 229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1) typically cause mild or moderate upper respiratory diseases such as colds. The symptoms are mild, mainly including runny nose, headache, cough, sore throat, fever and so on. Sometimes it causes lower respiratory diseases, such as pneumonia or bronchitis, which are more common in patients with cardiopulmonary diseases, people with low immunity, infants and the elderly.

MERS-CoV和SARS-CoV常可引起严重症状。MERS症状通常包括发热、咳嗽和呼吸急促,甚至发展为肺炎,病死率约为%。SARS症状通常包括发热、畏寒和身体疼痛,甚至发展为肺炎,病死率约为%。

MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV can often cause severe symptoms. MERS symptoms typically include fever, cough and shortness of breath, and even develop pneumonia, with a fatality rate of about%. SARS symptoms typically include fever, chills and body pain, and even develop pneumonia, with a fatality rate of about%.

已知的6种可感染人类的冠状病毒中,中东呼吸综合征冠状病毒(MERS-CoV)和严重急性呼吸综合征冠状病毒(SARS-CoV)所致疾病的严重程度以及社会影响远远超过其它冠状病毒,实验室检测方法相对较为成熟。

Among the six known coronaviruses that can infect humans, the severity and social impact of coronaviruses in the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (MERS-CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoV) are far more sophisticated than other coronaviruses.

病原学检测主要包括病毒分离、病毒核酸检测。病毒分离为实验室检测的“金标准”。病毒核酸检测可以用于早期诊断。应及时留取多种标本(咽拭子、鼻拭子、鼻咽或气管抽取物、痰或肺组织,以及血液和粪便)进行检测,其中以下呼吸道标本阳性检出率更高。

Pathogenic detection mainly includes virus isolation, virus nucleic acid detection. virus isolation as a “gold standard ” for laboratory testing. virus nucleic acid detection can be used for early diagnosis. A variety of specimens (pharyngeal swabs, nasal swabs, nasopharyngeal or tracheal extracts, sputum or lung tissue, and blood and feces) should be retained in time for detection, among which the positive detection rate of the following respiratory specimens is higher.


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