辣椒作为一种在全球范围内流行的蔬菜,能给人带来辛辣和灼烧的刺激感,人类对辣椒也产生了十分两极分化的情感,有人爱有人恨。同时,辣椒对人类健康的影响也一直备受关注。最近发表在《美国心脏病学会杂志》一项研究发现,每周食用4次辣椒,能显著降低心脑血管疾病的死亡率,并使总死亡风险降低23%。

As a globally popular vegetable, chili can give people a spicy and burning sense of excitement, and humans have also developed a very polarizing emotion about chili, and some love and hate. At the same time, the impact of chili on human health has been of concern. A recent study published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology found that consuming chili peppers four times a week significantly reduced mortality from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and reduced the overall risk of death by 23 percent.

  从公元前7000年起,辣椒就进入了人类的食谱。如今辣椒已经以各种方式存在于我们的饮食中,比如调味菜、辣味零食、老干妈和重庆火锅等,而以辣闻名的川菜也是中国人最喜欢菜系之一。不过,人们对于吃辣椒的态度还是存在两极分化,有的人无辣不欢,有的人却避之不及。而这主要是因为辣椒对消化系统的刺激,会让人瞬间产生强烈的生理反应,不同的人受到的刺激不同,感受也不一样,因此有的人能吃辣,爱吃辣可能就是因为受到的刺激度低。

Since 7000 BC, chili peppers have entered human recipes. Nowadays, chili peppers already exist in our diet in a variety of ways, such as seasoning, spicy snacks, old godmother and Chongqing hot pot, and Sichuan cuisine, famous for its spicy name, is also one of the Chinese favorite cuisines. However, people's attitude towards eating chili peppers is still polarized, some people are not spicy, some people cannot avoid. And this is mainly because the stimulation of the digestive system by the pepper, will make people instantly have a strong physiological response, different people are stimulated by different, the feeling is not the same, so some people can eat spicy, love spicy may be because of the low degree of stimulation.

  辣椒中会让嘴巴产生灼烧感的成分主要是辣椒素和二氢辣椒素。科学家表示,辣椒带来的灼烧感(辣味)不是一种味觉,而是一种痛觉。因为辣椒素主要作用于细胞膜上感受疼痛TRPV1受体。而如果辣椒素的摄入量过大,受体会产生耐受现象。这也解释了,为什么吃辣是能被练出来的。

The ingredients in the chilli that make the mouth burn are mainly capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. Scientists say the burning sensation brought by the chilli is not a taste but a sensation of pain. because capsaicin mainly acts on the membrane to feel the pain trpv1 receptor. And if the intake of capsaicin is too large, the experience produces tolerance. This also explains why spicy food can be practiced.

  在有关辣椒的健康效益上,科学家也进行了大量研究。在2017年的一项研究中,科学家发现吃辣椒可以减肥,主要原因在于辣椒能刺激脂肪代谢。而辣椒带来的生理反应,如出汗和产热,能让身体的能量以热能的形式散发出去。另外,吃辣椒后更不容易饥饿,会让人对脂肪、甜味和盐味食物的食欲降低。

Scientists have also done a lot of research on the health benefits of chili peppers. In a 2017 study, scientists found that eating chili peppers can lose weight, mainly because it stimulates fat metabolism. And the physiological effects of chili peppers, such as sweating and heat production, allow the body's energy to radiate out in the form of heat. In addition, eating chili peppers is less likely to be hungry, reducing the appetite for fatty, sweet and salty foods.

  除以上好处之外,辣椒似乎还有一些出人意料的健康益处。此前已经有一些研究证实,辣椒能改善癌症、糖尿病,还能抵抗动脉粥样硬化和增强心血管系统的功能。在这些研究的基础上,最近一篇发表在《美国心脏病学会杂志》上的研究又新添了辣椒有益健康的新证据。来自意大利IRCCSNeuromed研究所的科学家发现,辣椒能大幅降低心血管疾病带来的死亡风险。

In addition to the above benefits, chili peppers seem to have some unexpected health benefits. There have been several studies that have confirmed that chili peppers improve cancer, diabetes and also fight atherosclerosis and enhance the function of the cardiovascular system. Based on these studies, a recent study published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology adds new evidence of the health benefits of chili peppers. Scientists from the IRCSNeuromed Institute in Italy have found that chili peppers significantly reduce the risk of death from cardiovascular disease.

  除了中国的食物外,很多地区的食物中也都含有辣椒。在这项新研究中,研究人员以喜欢吃辣的意大利人作为研究对象,评估了辣椒对总死亡率和心脑血管疾病死亡率的影响。

In addition to Chinese food, chili peppers are also found in foods in many regions. In the new study, researchers looked at Italians who liked spicy food as subjects to assess the impact of chili peppers on overall mortality and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease mortality.

  他们一共对22811位意大利自愿者进行了长达5年的跟踪调查。根据辣椒的食用情况,他们将参与者分为4组,分别是:“很少吃或不吃”、“最多一周两次”、“一周2到4次”和“一周4次及以上”。其中%的参与者很少吃或不吃辣椒,而%的参与者一周食用辣椒的次数超过4次。

They tracked 22,811 Italian volunteers for five years. According to the consumption of the peppers, they divided the participants into four groups:\" rarely or not to eat \",\" twice a week at most,\"\" two to four times a week \"and\" four or more times a week.\" Of these,% ate little or no chilies, while% ate them more than four times a week.

  在研究初期,他们对4组参与者的饮食水平进行了统计。经过5年的跟踪调查后,研究人员发现相较于少量或不摄入红辣椒,每周至少吃4顿辣椒的参与者总死亡率直接降低了23%,由心血管疾病、缺血性心脏病、脑血管疾病导致的死亡率分别降低了34%、44%和61%。另外两组少量食用辣椒的人死亡率也有一定程度的降低。

At the beginning of the study, they counted the dietary levels of the four groups of participants. After five years of follow-up, the researchers found that participants who ate at least four chillies a week had a 23 percent direct reduction in total mortality compared to a small or non-intake of red peppers, and 34 percent,44 percent and 61 percent, respectively, from cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. The other two groups of people who ate a small amount of chili also had a somewhat lower mortality rate.

  为了探究辣椒改善心血管疾病的原因,他们测量了参与者体内的全胆固醇含量、高密度脂蛋白、甘油三脂和血糖等各项代谢指标,同时还测量了评价心血管疾病的关键生物指标——高敏C反应蛋白和血清维生素D。

To explore the reasons why chili peppers improved cardiovascular disease, they measured metabolic indicators such as total cholesterol content, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides and blood sugar in participants, as well as key biological indicators to evaluate cardiovascular disease - high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and serum vitamin D.

  结果显示,摄入辣椒能增加血清中的维生素D浓度,增加对心脑血管具有保护效益。辣椒还增加了血液中和促进脂肪代谢相关的的胆固醇、甘油三脂和载脂蛋白的浓度,这可能避免了血液中的脂肪含量过高和血液黏稠。

The results showed that the intake of pepper increased the serum vitamin D concentration and the increase was protective for the cardiac and cerebrovascular vessels. Peppers also increase blood levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and Apolipoproteins associated with fat metabolism, which may avoid excessive fat levels and blood viscosity in the blood.

  另外,研究还发现食用辣椒能降低由癌症导致的死亡率,但效果并不十分显著;而食用甜椒能降低缺血性心脏病的死亡率,但不能降低脑血管疾病导致的死亡率。但从总体来看,无论是甜椒还是辣椒,食用辣椒都有一定的好处。

In addition, the study found that consumption of chili peppers reduced cancer-related mortality, but the effect was not significant; consumption of sweet peppers reduced mortality from ischemic heart disease but did not reduce mortality from cerebrovascular disease. But on the whole, whether it is sweet pepper or chili, eating chili has certain benefits.

  相较于人们普遍认为的吃辣椒并不健康,文章的第一作者、神经医学流行病学家MarialauraBonaccio说:“这项有趣的研究证实了,辣椒能对具有各种饮食习惯的人群提供心血管的保护效益。”她还强调,辣椒中还含有抗氧化剂、维生素和类黄酮等有益物质,这些物质对身体的健康是十分有益的。

\"This interesting study confirms that chili peppers provide cardiovascular protection for people with a variety of eating habits,\" said Maria laura Bonacio, a neuroepidemiologist and first author of the article, compared to the popular belief that eating them is unhealthy. She also stressed that peppers also contain beneficial substances such as antioxidants, vitamins and flavonoids, which are very good for health.

  在此项针对意大利人吃辣的研究之前,科学家已经研究了中国居民吃辣对健康的影响,结果发现每天食用辣味食物,能使总死亡风险降低14%,缺血性心脏病的死亡率降低22%、癌症和呼吸道疾病的死亡率也会分别降低8%和29%。

Before the study, which looked at the health effects of spicy food among Chinese residents, scientists found that eating spicy foods daily reduced the overall risk of death by 14 percent, that of ischemic heart disease by 22 percent, and that of cancer and respiratory diseases by 8 percent and 29 percent, respectively.

  而《美国国家健康与营养调查》中的一项结果认为,吃红辣椒能使总死亡风险降低13%。而这次的研究更像是补充了之前欧洲吃辣研究的空白,并确认了辣椒对心血管的保护效益。

And a National Health and Nutrition Survey found that eating red peppers reduced the overall risk of death by 13 percent. This study is more like supplementing the gap in previous studies of spicy food in Europe and confirming the cardiovascular benefits of chili peppers.

  从以上的研究来看,我们更没有理由放弃手中的辣味小零食,另外每周一次的火锅也可以提上日程了。但对于不能吃辣的人来说,如果也想享受辣椒素带来的健康效益,却不想在生理上感受辣椒的灼烧感,可以在下次吃辣时自备牛奶和豆奶。

From the above research, we have no reason to give up the spicy snacks in our hands, and the weekly hot pot can also be on the agenda. But for those who can't eat spicy, if they also want to enjoy the health benefits of capsaicin, they don't want to feel the burning sensation of chilies physiologically, and can bring their own milk and soy milk the next time they eat spicy.


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